Khalifa Haftar’s offensive to take Tripoli, Libya’s capital and largest city, has stalled. Launched in April 2019, the campaign has triggered the largest mobilization of fighters in western Libya since the revolution of 2011.

It has also provoked new rifts within and between communities, and is preparing the ground for future political struggles.

Who is Fighting Whom in Tripoli: How the 2019 Civil War is Transforming Libya’s Military Landscape—a new Briefing Paper from the Small Arms Survey’s Security Assessment in North Africa (SANA) project—examines the identities and interests of the forces fighting each other over control of Tripoli.

It shows that the divides of 2011 are central in structuring the two opposing alliances and in shaping the motivations of many involved in the war.